Free Energy, Theory, Devices and Progess
Senthil R. Kumar Tue, 2 Nov 1993
by Patrick G. Bailey, Ph. D.
P.O. Box 201
Los Altos, CA 94023-0201



Presented to : the International Forum on New Science
1304 S. College Avenue
Ft. Colins, CO 80524
(303) 482-3731

September 19, 1992

A review is presented of the theory and experimental evidence relating to Zero
Point Energy and Free Energy Devices. This review is based on a two year
study of the information and data available in these fields, and also upon the
information presented by various key researchers in these fields at three
recent conferences. It is found that there is increasing momentum and a
growing network of researchers taking place in these fields, despite reported
efforts to suppress this information. Examples of such past and present
suppression activities are included. Nevertheless, sound theoretical
foundations for understanding so-called "Zero Point Energy" and "Free Energy"
devices have been documented and are available. There are several reports by
various authors of experiments that indicate a much higher than normal
operation efficiency, and even over-unity operation. Unfortunately, these
results have to date not been replicated by other researchers.

Since energy is conserved, pure perpetual motion cannot exist. However,
several examples are known to exist where energy efficiency can appear to be
over-unity, and the motion can appear to us to be perpetual. For these types
of systems, the idea of "Free Energy" can be applied, and lessons learned.
Several experiments are discussed that have demonstrated the possibility of
obtaining energy from space, and utilizing that energy in a way different from
the normal laws of electricity. These experiments and results are being
tracked down and closely examined. Valuable references with real mailing
addresses and telephone numbers are included herein. Replications of these
encouraging results are desperately needed.


"Let God kill him that does not know, yet presumes to show the other the way!"
This quote from a Persian dervish in the movie and videotape of "Meetings with
Remarkable Men" by Gurdjieff (1963) pretty much summarizes my feelings toward
the whole area of science, and living as well. It's a jungle out there. The
dividing line between truth, fiction, what is best, and what sells has never
been less clearly defined. Since the advent of the digital information
explosion, the sea of information has been growing at a pace that few can
follow. However, if we are to be responsible and seek the truth, we must
persevere. I am dedicated to finding the truth. My fields of interest are
Nature, religion, and science, and their beneficial applications to the human

To learn about the foundations and current technical knowledge in the Zero
Point and Free Energy fields is to open a very large Pandora's Box. One finds
non-believers, strong supporters, dissenters, and active hard-nosed
suppressers. My interest was aroused as a teenager by reading about the life
and contributions of Nikola Tesla, now available in the books by Walters
(1961) and Cheney (1981). He is the one individual responsible for creating
the entire alternating current network that powers the world today. He defied
the science of his day, and designed and built the AC generator that
transforms "potential" energy into "electrical" energy. Yet, he is not in
many school texts, and his basic theories and ideas for larger projects and
applications were nearly lost to the world. Why was he not supported? Why is
Thomas Edison such a well known name and Nikola Tesla is not? Why was his
research not actively continued? Why does the academic community, within the
US, continually ignore the possible applications of his theories?

Tesla was unceremoniously thrown out of the best technical school in
Yugoslavia for believing that he could build a generator that would extract
electrical power from a running stream of water. His professor called it:
"Perpetual Motion!" This is not so unfamiliar. We have heard other such
convenient explanations, such as: "Heavier than air machines will never fly"
(Lord Kelvin, 1890s); "We threw out all of the textbooks, and then we built
the airplane" (the Wright Brothers); "The human body will not survive speeds
of over 40 miles per hour" (early 1900s); and "Airplanes can not go faster
than the speed of sound" (1940s). Other example abound, all spoken by the
out-spoken "leaders" of their day. My view is that science continues to grow
and mature. Nature is fixed. Only our understanding of Nature continually
unfolds. Sometimes this growth has been only painful, and sometimes it has
provided great shocks to the system. Fear of change is not an adequate excuse
for not actively pursuing the development of our full capabilities as human
beings, as individuals or as groups.

Areas Of Related Interest

The study of the "Free Energy" field overlaps with quite a number of other
areas of science and technology that are not well understood, and are usually
called "fringe areas." I believe that responsible investigations in these
areas do uncover important information and data that can relate to various
questions that occur in the study of Free Energy. These questions include:
Why is this research not conducted? Is it suppressed? Why is it suppressed?
Are there other examples of such suppression? Where can I get more
information? Are there any examples of such advanced related technologies?
If such energy sources exist, has anyone found out how to use them? How do
they work? Can I use them, and can I use them in a responsible manner?

There is a great outcry by those familiar with our current energy policy and
the public electricity utility network for need of a new breakthrough in the
technology of energy production. Dr. Gary Johnson (1992), a college professor
and IEEE Senior Member, recently published a short review of the researchers
in this area in a noted US technical journal and concluded his four page
report with the statement:

"There is a great deal of noise in the literature. Some concepts are
obviously nonsense. Others will prove to be in error. But is there any
signal in all the noise? There is if Tesla, Moray, and Bearden are correct.
The potential payoff is enormous, so the search should be continued if there
is any chance at all of success."

Also, Llewellen King (1991), publisher of The Energy Daily, Defense Week, and
Environmental Week Newsletters in Washington DC recently strongly and
dramatically stated in a speech to an international technical conference:

"We have failed with energy to come up with the 'Great Big Breakthrough!'
'The Major Change.' 'The Radically Different Thing.' 'The Quantum Leap
Forward.' Where is the jump from a copper wire to a fiber or to a cable?
Where is the equivalent of fiber optics for electricity? ... The new
technologies (discussed at this conference), such as magnetohydrodynamics,
(are advancing and coming forth), and yet these things have not fostered - and
we are still boiling water! It is theoretically possible that we could at
some point take this 'Quantum Leap Forward.' ... And in order to do that, I
believe that you will need new institutions to deploy new technology. They
won't be deployed by the extant of the old institutions. ... The Challenge in
Technology is to find It, and then sell It, and finally to deploy It."

Since the status and results in energy technologies and in these other fringe
areas are seen differently by different persons, many misunderstandings take
place, people become frustrated, emotions become heated, and eventually
someone gets sorely offended. People can range from Apathy, to Denial, to
Anger, and finally to Acceptance. So as to not offend anyone in this paper, I
will limit the areas of my summary introduction investigations to Politics,
Religion, and Sex.


"Never give a sucker an even break." I became very concerned when I became
aware of first hand and second hand accounts of actual physical, emotional,
and legal harassment being made to inventors, investigators, and writers in
these scientific fringe areas. And I thought all of these suppression stories
were nonsense. Upon investigation, harassment always follows those who
promote a new paradigm. Galileo spent a lot of time in jail. So did Royal
Rife, who demonstrated a cure for cancer in the 1930s, summarized in the books
written by Barry Lyons (1989, 1989), published, of course, in Canada.
Christopher Bird (1991) writes of the persecution of Gaston Naessens for his
radical and effective treatments of diseases. America West Publishers has
available many books that list actions that have been taken by various
authorities to diffuse or bury "politically embarrassing" events and
situations. Paul Findley wrote a best seller (1985) that summarizes the
effectiveness of large political pressure groups. Fortunately today, there
are many who do not conform to the "party line" in many political areas, such
as the "Center for Action" in Nevada. In the area of AIDS research and
information transfer, Dr. Robert Strecker has produced a videotape (1988) and
Dr. Taki Anagnoston (1991) has published a book that promotes a view far
different than is advertised nationally to the American people. "The Cutting
Edge Newsletter" by William Douglass also serves as a source for alternate

In my view, there is not a determined effort by the government to suppress
information - because there is no government. I see instead a collection and
network of vested interest groups that seem to tightly band together for
mutual financial survival. The actions taken by any of these groups may be
completely independent from the others. Therefore, I find the "government
suppression" and "world domination" theories proposed by some to be
interesting, and probably not applicable. However, some sort of control and
suppression in the press seems very evident. Coleman (1992) has summarized
that certain groups are actively controlling all other groups. The "Project
Censored Newsletter" and their student staff at Sonoma State University, CA,
are actively pointing out US news stories that seem to be actively suppressed
in this country. So, how does this all relate to the topic of Free Energy?
Ken MacNeill (1983) published a very disturbing article entitled "Insights
into the Proprietary Syndrome" in which he points out that over 3,000 patents
have been suppressed! It is reprinted in the Appendix of this paper. Read

Two historical events are worth including here regarding possible suppression
and inability to commercialize Free Energy devices. These are the Over-Unity
Device of T. Henry Moray (Resines, 1988), and the Hindershot Motor (Brown,
1988). Both of these devices were publicly demonstrated to the US press in
the 1930s, and carefully conducted tests were made to assess these devices.
From the newspaper reports and clippings, it appears that both devices passed
all tests, only to fall into oblivion. What exactly happened to the devices,
their inventors, and the technology is not known. It also appears that the
secrets of the devices died with their inventors.

If information deemed sensitive by certain governmental agencies can be
actively suppressed, then what are the other possible ways of obtaining such
information? One method that has gained popularity in recent years is through
the use of channeling.


"Ask and you shall receive". I was surprised to hear that a grandmother
("dharma") who said she could channel Nikola Tesla had been given a formal
test in front of some very influential people in Los Angles, and she passed
the test with very few errors. I was told that the questions were prepared by
a small knowledgeable group, and about half of the questions were reported to
be trick questions. Well, if this method can work to get advanced technical
information let's try it. After all, where do our ideas come from in the
first place? Both Tesla and Edison are reported to have made their respective
amazing discoveries while daydreaming - not actually thinking!

Upon investigation, there is a morass of spiritual and channeled information
being published out there. From my point of view, it is all applicable to a
person, depending upon where that person is at in his life, and of course it
is not all true, applicable, or valid information. The magazine "Connecting
Link" summarizes a lot of this information. Just for purposes of reference, I
will list the names of those channeled intelligences that I have researched,
by either reading their communications or personally conversing with them
through their physical host. (The references are organized by the name of the
intelligence, or collective intelligence, with the name of the host or
channeler in parentheses.) From what I currently know, I give this list is
given in order of increasing importance to me for personal information

Ramtha, Lazaris, Seth, Bashar, Korton, Ashtar, Soltec, Cosmic Awareness, The
Pleiadians, Hatonn, Ra, Hilarion, St. Germain, Thoth, Mary, Sananda, Aton.

To me, any information is valid only when it constructively supports or fits
into the puzzle that I am trying to solve. What is valid for each person
varies with each person, and their puzzle of the moment. I have noticed that
I receive more valid information from hosts who are in unconscious trance
during the communications. If the host can remember anything of the
communication, I feel there is always the possibility of tampering with the
information during reception and transmission, thus producing "tainted"
information. This has historically occurred with many popularized channelers
that have elected to use their talents and such communications primarily for
their personal profit.

Also, I find one needs to separate the substance of the message from any given
dates. To hear an intelligence say that "at this time a truck is gathering
speed and is coming this way that will cross this intersection here in three
hours," does not necessarily mean the truck will ever get there. If it does,
great. Then that is a measure of predictability. If not, so what! Was that
the point? Neither of these issues is demonstrable science. I find it is
best to gather the substance of the information and relate it to my puzzles.
Those that believe and act on all of the details of every channeled
communication may be in for quite a shock, as described in the book When
Prophecy Fails by Festinger, Riecken, and Schachter (1956).

I do know that some of the channeled information recently received is
extremely accurate. A case in point is the book channeled by Sananda through
"dharma" (1989) regarding the life of Jesus . While persons affiliated with
America West Publishers, then in southern California, were trying to decipher
the German text of the first few chapters of this material (originally
translated into German from the Aramaic script found in 1963) with very little
success, a complete translation in English was given in 1989 through "dharma"
by Sananda (1989). Two years later, the original German manuscript was
translated by J. H. Ziegler and B. L. Greene, authored by Rashid (1992), and
published by Wild Flower Press in Oregon. Neither party knew of the existence
of the other until after the material was typeset. The contents are nearly
identical. I can personally attest to other cases of receiving extremely
accurate information and being allowed to be involved in "unexplainable"
physical events.

Whether one needs to be out-of-body to receive information, I am not sure.
Robert Monroe (1971, 1985) has spent years in this field with the Monroe
Institute in Virginia, and he and his co-workers have all received personal
knowledge. I do not know if they have received any higher technical knowledge
that is of interest here. J. J. Hurtak (1978) received a vast amount of
technical knowledge out-of-body when he channeled the extensive work The Keys
of Enoch.

Why haven't these intelligences just given us the secrets of advanced
technology on a silver platter? I don't know. Perhaps we as a collective
society are not ready for it. Some technical information is being given out
from these intelligences and is slowly being published. Perhaps, as Hatonn,
The Pleiadians, and other intelligences have suggested: that if we told you
that, then "they" would kill our vehicle. Perhaps, waiting is.

Perhaps the goal of life is not to pursue the engineering of an easier life
style solely for the comfort of living our lives through technology, but to
finally realize what our personal mission here is, to become in touch with
that mission, and then to perform that mission. That phrase from college:
"God has a plan for my life" makes very good sense here. The problem actually
may be that most of us are not taking the time to find out what our personal
mission is, and how to responsibly perform it. If you wish to pursue this,
the most Holy course, I highly recommend the books by Dion Fortune (1957),
Gaetan Delaforge (1987), and Fred and Pam Cameron (1991). The latter book,
Bridges of Light, includes step-by-step instructions, all specifically
channeled, on how you can receive your own accurate information. So Be It.


"It takes two to Tango." Potentially, things are very interesting. It seems
to take two at different potentials to make something happen: male/female,
up/down, positive/negative, north/south. The view being taught today is
primarily simply given in one or two dimensions. Electricity is caused by the
electrons going one way on a wire, and the holes going the other way.
Electrical energy is created by chemical reactions that have a lower chemical
ground state than the reactants. Chemical reactions are caused by electron
bonding where electron orbits are finally filled and then higher orbits can be
filled. Atomic energy is caused by electrons and nucleons dropping into lower
energy states (gamma rays and lasers), or by differences in the binding energy
of the nuclei (fission and fusion). The Sun gives and the Earth receives.

For energy creation, we have developed the catch-all term: potential energy.
The water behind a dam is said to have a great deal of potential energy, so
the electricity is said to come out of the power plant. A battery has a
stored electrical potential, so it powers your radio. Men and women all have
stored potential, and we all know what trouble that can cause. However; no
one ever talks about magnets, and the possible potential energies within
magnets and electromagnetic fields. Light is such an electromagnetic (EM)
field. The motions of the electrical component and the magnetic component of
alternating current, similar to light, are three-dimensional as they travel
along a wire, and at several points, each is zero. Where did they go? How is
EM energy stored and transmitted? Can usable amounts of energy be extracted
from already existing large and massive EM fields?

I have found only two sources that reference the modeling of EM fields in
three spatial dimensions: the works of Walter Russell (1926, 1947, 1989), and
material channeled by Hatonn et. al. (1991). The idea that energy exists in
male and female vortices that form between this dimension and other dimensions
is not new. The idea just hasn't been very useful, yet. Russell and Hatonn
describe three dimensional elemental EM fields that can be classified as male
and female by the spin of their 3-D EM fields, much the same way that we
describe the poles of a bar magnet. Russell developed and tested counter-
wound sets of coils, each in the shape of overlapping (male/female) cones.
Such a coupling and cancellation of these fields would open up a whole new way
of thinking about electricity and EM fields in general. Also, a new
investigation of the physics of rotating permanent magnets and rotating EM
fields would be very interesting. All reported research in these fields seems
to stop in the early 1950s. I wonder why.

UFOs and Crop Circles

"We are living in Lies." This statement was made by both Colin Andrews and
Linda Moulton-Howe during their presentations during the Whole Life Expo (WLE)
in San Francisco, April 1991. It speaks for itself. If examples of advanced
technology are being demonstrated all around us nearly every day, shouldn't we
be interested? Well, if it does not impact our daily life, and our personal
finances, maybe we don't care. We could say, let the government figure it
out. Well, evidently, "they" don't, can't, or won't care. Besides, what you
don't know won't hurt you. Right? However; it may stunt your growth.

If you really want to know, you are going to have to rely on yourself. This
is all very interesting to me, because it allows for the possibility of
several examples of advanced technology here and now. And from my
experiences, these phenomena are real, reoccurring, and getting more numerous
and in-your-face outrageous all the time.

Without diverting from our main topic for too long, I will list the best
sources of UFO craft pictures and crop geometrical formation material I have
found. (They are not just dots in the sky, and circles, any more. Sorry.)
The UFO craft pictures began in the 1950s with those taken by George Adamski
and published in his book in by Leslie in 1953. (These pictures could have
been faked, and I recall someone telling me that Adamski was said to have
declared his whole photograph library a fraud on his death bed; and I do not
know.) The pictures taken and thousands of sightings reported in the New York
Hudson Valley region in the 1980s cannot be denied (Hynek, 1987). Pictures
from around the world have been compiled in two books by Wendelle Stevens and
August Roberts (1985). Other UFO book sources are listed. And, the UFO Video
Clearinghouse in California has just about all the movie footage and video
taken of UFOs and TV programs produced that are available world-wide. "UFO's
the Best Evidence" is a two-hour video produced by KLAS, Channel 6 in Las
Vegas, that should be seen by everyone!

Close-up photographs, movie footage, and videotapes are much more disturbing
to some people than the usual lights in the sky. The photographs by Billy
Meier in Volume 1 of the books by Elders (1979) are apparently all actual
photographs of large disk craft. (I was told that a few of the pictures in
Volume 2 (1983) were of models that were made in order to compare to Meier's
craft photographs, and then the photos were inadvertently mixed). For those
that disagree with this, I recommend that you carefully read the technical
photographic analyses in Volume 1 that were performed on some of the photos by
disinterested scientists in the US using electron microscopes, laser scanning,
and computer analyses and enhancements; and then read the book by Gary Kinder
(1987), who set out to visit Meier, his family, and the people in the local
community there in Switzerland in order to prove the Meier story a hoax.
Also, we have the pictures from Gulf Breeze, Florida, in the book by Ed and
Francis Walters (1990). (Some say they faked the pictures, but not to the
hundreds of local eye witnesses that claimed to have seen the same thing,
including most of the city officials.)

Robert (Bob) Lazar presents an interesting story in his videotape (1992) of
how he became involved with some disk craft while working in the power
propulsion area. His story is summarized as one of the six viewpoints in the
book by Lindemann (1991), as is Linda Moulton-Howe's. Lazar states that the
craft he worked on were powered by a matter- antimatter (potential energy)
reaction with a near-stable element of an atomic number of 115, which has not
yet been found or produced on Earth. Such a nuclide could give off power in a
manner similar to Cobalt-60, which emits very high energy and deadly gamma
radiation, thus the need for lead shielding in nuclear fission power plants.
How the El-115 power would be utilized is unknown. More to the point, how
would such craft be able to levitate above the Earth? Perhaps it could
utilize an interaction of engineered variable frequency EM fields with the
Earth's local gravity and EM fields. That could explain the very complex and
time-dependent harmonics found by expert sound researchers when they analyzed
the sound of a hovering craft as recorded on audio tape by Meier while making
movies of a craft. These are all available.

For additional information regarding what these craft are, who are coming, and
why, I would recommend the material from Stanton Friedman (1991) and Sananda
(1989). Additional viewpoints are found in the book by Lindemann (1991) and
in the transcription of the wonderful talk given by Linda Moulton-Howe at the
April 1991 SF WLE. It appears we are being visited by more than 50 alien
cultures on the physical plane, all different, yet related, each having their
own version of their "sports car or RV," and each with their own purposes and
motivations. It also appears that this is nothing new, has been going on for
what appears to be a very, very long time, and so what! What is interesting
is the apparent lack of advanced technology transfer, which could be likened
to a possible violation of the "Prime Non-Interference Directive" popularized
in Star Trek. Unless such advanced data is being given to the privileged few.
Unless we, in the US and in other parts of the world, as individual societies
are being allowed the information as fast as we can (financially) safely
absorb it and properly utilize it for our benefit and not our mutual
destruction. That is what I would hope. That is where I want to be.

The crop formations are another and perhaps a more advanced topic altogether.
The books by Colin Andrews (1989), Alick Bartholomew (1991), and Ralph Noyes
(1990) stimulate the imagination. As Colin would say: "I'm sorry. It just
isn't Doug and Dave, as the British Press would have you believe!" These
formations have become quite complex, such as the Barbury Castle formation
that appeared overnight in July 1991. It contains three "circles" of about 35
feet in diameter located at the apex of a nearly equilateral triangle that
measures about 180 feet on a side, with three internal circles and spokes
within the triangle. I highly recommend Colin Andrew's (1991) videotape
"Undeniable Evidence."

Background Material

It is important that I include as much quality reference material as I am
able. These areas of interest have grown so large and confusing that it is
difficult to know where to turn for the best or most meaningful information.
So I will include a list of the most applicable patents, the best books,
reports, conference proceedings, and the most up-to-date papers that I know of
in the Zero Point Energy and Free Energy fields. I also have included in the
references the complete names and addresses of several technical societies,
groups, and book sources.


There are several patents of phenomena and devices that are of interest.
Rather than discuss them here, I will list them in the references. They may
be referred to later.

It is important to note that you can quickly obtain any patent from a local US
patent clearinghouse, such as the one in Sunnyvale, California, by a telephone
call or a FAX once an account has been set up for you. If you are not in a
hurry, you can order a copy of any patent for $3.00 (three dollars) each from
the Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks in Washington DC, although it may
take 2-6 weeks. Just provide the long patent number.

Books and Reports

Many books and reports have been published that relate to the Free Energy
fields. I have listed the ones I have looked at in the references in this
section. I have included all of Lt. Col. Tom Bearden's books and reports. It
should be pointed out that Tom's book entitled AIDS: Biological Warfare
(1988) probably has the best description of the pumped phase conjugate mirror
wave theory model of any of his books. The book by Moray B. King (1989) gives
an excellent overview of the definition of Zero Point Energy. Several books
and reports have recently emerged regarding gravity and the Earth's apparent
energy grid network. Books regarding the Orgonne Accumulator and ether vortex
mechanics are also included. The book by Hans Nieper (1981) is a great
reference book, and sometimes hard to find: use the source listed. The
theories promoted by Richard Hoagland and the Mars Mission are also
interesting, including the fact that a solid tetrahedron placed in a sphere
will intersect the sphere at 19.5 degrees latitude, which is the same Earth
latitude upon which Tesla was constructing his Wardenclyffe Tower in New York.
The theories of Victor Schauberger (Alexandersson, 1982) are also very
interesting, including his descriptions of Natural energy vortices, the
changing properties of 4 degree C water with the phases of the moon, as
descriptions of other Natural wonders.


I am familiar with only a few of the many technical conferences held that deal
with the Zero Point and Free Energy fields. The one's I have recently
attended are the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference
(IECEC), held in August 1991 in Boston, MA; the 1992 International Tesla
Symposium, held in July 1992 in Colorado Springs, CO; and the 27th IECEC held
in August 1992 in San Diego, CA. As I organized the authors and papers for
both the 26th and 27th IECECs in the "Innovative Concepts" sessions for the
"New Technologies for Energy Utilization Area," I am more familiar with their
papers and contents. The material presented in other conferences, such as the
bi- annual International Tesla Society conferences, do relate and overlap
with much of the material presented in the recent IECEC conferences. It is my
desire that future authors will network and exchange information before they
write their next paper, so we can accelerate and converge the work that is
being performed in these fields.

Societies and Publications

All the ones that I feel are of importance are listed in the references for
your use. Make multiple photocopies of all of the six pages of the references
and distribute them.

Free Energy Theory, Experiments, and Devices

"Come on, let me show you where it's at." Well, I can show you what I have
been able to find out from the referenced sources within the past three years
anyway. I have learned that there is a lot of very sound scientific theory
that supports the existence of additional energy sources, ways of interacting
with those potential energies, and extracting energy for use. There is also a
lot of experiments, devices, and just good ol' fooling around going across the
country to try to measure new ways of measuring these new energy sources.
There are also devices that have been built, tested, demonstrated, and
provided for testing by others - that seem to have passed all of the tests.
These will be discussed below. First some truths and definitions.

Energy exists. It can not be created nor destroyed. Energy can only be
converted from one form into another. In that conversion process, some energy
is lost, in the form of friction or heat, so the efficiency of the energy
transfer process is always less than 100 percent. The process (you can
envision a box) will always give less energy out than energy goes in. The
ratio of "energy out" to "energy in" is always less than one: under-unity.
An over-unity device cannot exist. Perpetual motion does not exist. All
motion eventually will run down. (Whether you live to be here when it does
run down is another matter.) So, let's see. A car battery is a good example.
It has so much energy to start with, and it eventually runs down from starting
the starter motor and friction in the wire. Draw a larger box. The car runs
and recharges the battery because the engine converts the potential energy
within the fuel during combustion into crankshaft motion, which is then used
to recharge the battery, until it runs out of gas. Draw a larger box. The
car can go downhill with the engine off by transforming the potential energy
of the hill into kinetic or moving energy at the bottom of the hill. OK. But
what about Hoover Dam? It just sits there and creates energy. We don't put
any energy into it, except when we built it. And we sure didn't put as much
energy into it as we have gotten out of it. And it for sure is not going to
last forever. But it's doing just fine now. So is that an example of a Free
Energy device with an energy conversion factor of over-unity? Yes or No?

To handle such mind benders, workers in the Zero Point and Free Energy fields
have, for better or worse, and probably for the near term worse, have adopted
a simple way of describing the results of their research, in terms of what
they can immediately measure and see. So there are three categories that are
generally expounded upon: "Free Energy Under-unity," "Free Energy, Over-
unity," and "Zero Point Energy." (1) "Free Energy Under-unity" would be when
I get more energy out than before and I only made a small change to my design,
like to increase the overall system efficiency. An example might be those
magnets that when placed onto a car gas line give 5 miles extra per gallon.
That's Free Energy dude! This appears to be the case for several motors and
generators that utilize magnets on their rotating shafts. (2) "Free Energy
Over-unity" would be where I seem to get more energy out than I know am
putting in. Period. An example would be pushing a car over the top of a
hill. When it takes off without you, it appears additional energy is coming
from somewhere. And, in all cases, of such experiments, the energy MUST be
coming from somewhere in some form. It just hasn't been figured out yet, and
the researcher has probably not drawn a large enough box. (3) "Zero Point
Energy" refers to the energy that comes from outside your influence: the
wiring in the wall; the transmission lines nearby; a large EM signal on a
specific FM radio station; the Earth's EM or gravitational field; solar EM
energy; or possibly directed energy from outer space. Just because we can't
measure it, doesn't mean it's not there.

With these definitions in mind, we see that Hoover Dam is a good example and
could be considered by some Dam Engineer to be an over-unity device. A good
Dam Scientist would probably point out that the Sun evaporates the oceans and
lakes, moves the vapor, makes the rain that fills the Dam, and the potential
energy of the water produces the electrical power. The Dam Engineer could
probably care less, and could also say that the Dam is a perpetual motion
machine that will last forever; which means at least until he retires and his
kids are out of college. The Dam Engineer would say: "The Dam thing runs on
Free Energy out of the air! The city of Los Angles believes it!" But: you
know it won't last forever. Neither will the Sun.

So we need to be careful in our choice of words. For the purposes of this
paper, a Free Energy device will appear to produce more energy than it uses,
because it is not known from what form of potential energy source the other
required input energy comes from. Thus, we will allow system efficiencies
over 100%, and over-unity energy conversion until we are either proven wrong,
or we finally draw a larger box and understand what is happening inside that

It is very important here to be a Fair Witness. (Thank you Robert Heinlein!)
That is a person who reports exactly what he or she sees; no more, no less.
Researchers and investors really do not give a (guess what) about what you
think is going on. They want the facts of exactly what you observed. If a
device appears to be promising: say so, and report it to be so. If it has a
problem, say it seems to have a problem. Only after extensive support,
testing, and cross-examination should an experiment or a device be classified
or labeled a fraud or a failure. Once labeled as such, they will not easily
obtain further support. Be responsible.

Free Energy Theoretical Considerations

Harold Aspden from the United Kingdom (1991) shared insights into the basic
factors involved with vacuum field or zero point energy so that: "the 'free
energy' challenge to win through and revolutionize the energy scene can
involve more people with design skills and resources." He proposes a frontal
attack on currently accepted physics, urging: "a theoretical and experimental
program to follow projects in five classifications: (1) Non-relativistic
energy theory; (2) Ferromagnetic vacuum energy generation; (3)
Electrodynamic vacuum energy generation; (4) Electromagnetic vacuum energy
generation; and (5) Gravitational vacuum energy generation." He also pointed
out the need for much of the work to be proprietary in order to attract
investment funds, but eventually the published literature would be augmented
by disclosure arising by development on these projects. Aspden (1992) this
year described a foundation of a new technology for converting environmental
heat energy into electricity. The structure involved, whether in the tested
thermoelectric device or the suggested radiation concentration device, uses
thin film metal films separated by non-conductive materials. An efficiency of
70% of the Carnot maximum has been demonstrated for the thermoelectric device
operating at ambient temperatures with a 20 degree temperature differential.

Moray B. King (1992) presents a very good detailed review of the "Progress and
Results in Zero-Point Energy Research" in his paper with the same title,
available from Tesla Inc. Moray states:

"Since the advent of quantum mechanics, modern physics has supported the view
that the fabric of totality of empty space is not void but contains a plenum
of energy called the zero point energy (ZPE). The energy consists of
fluctuations of electric field energy that persists even at zero degrees
Kelvin. A question applicable to engineers is can the ZPE be tapped as an
energy source? At first this idea seems to be a blatant violation of
conservation of energy, but if the zero-point energy really exists as is
suggested by modern physics, energy is present and its conversion would not be
the issue."

"The surprising cold current effect has been associated with other inventions,
such as T. Henry Moray's, using number 30 wire within his 50 kiloWatt device.
It might be explained by the hypothesis that the coupling of synchronous ion
oscillations with the ZPE can manifest macroscopic vacuum polarization
displacement currents, which can surround a conductive wire and be guided by
it. Conduction band electrons, lacking stable, radially convergent vacuum
polarization lines, have a minimal interaction with these displacement
currents, and the wires remain cold. If engineers could replicate this
effect, zero-point energy research would receive widespread interest."

"Another area where coherent ion motion is associated with energy anomalies
involves abrupt electrical discharges. (This is apparent in controlled water
explosion experiments.) Hyde's device was faced with a similar problem of
absorbing large voltage pulses in his patented invention. He solved the
problem and created an advanced embodiment which produced over 20 kiloWatts of
net output power while free running."

"From the concentrated vacuum polarization of atomic nuclei arises the
possibility of triggering a macroscopic ZPE coherence with the synchronous
motion of many nuclei. Further supporting evidence arises from inventions
that utilize coherent ion motions and output excessive energy. The sharp
voltage spikes that arise from ion-acoustic activity can be converted by use
of circuits such as Hyde's voltage divider. The largest effects might be
produced by solid state methods that manifest dual, counter-rotating,
acoustical, lattice spinor waves. If synchronous ion-acoustic activity
coheres the zero-point energy, there will be many more inventions forthcoming,
and a new energy source will be recognized."

It should be pointed out that the voltage divider circuit in Hyde's patent
(patent Fig. 6) has been questioned by several engineers. Moray King is
assisting a network of scientists and engineers who are redesigning this
circuit to replicate and produce a working model of this device.

For some years, Tom Bearden (1991) has worked on an extended electromagnetics
theory, involving the scalar component of the quaternion. (A scalar is a
number with no vector direction, like speed. A vector has numerical values in
each defined direction, like velocity. A quaternion is like a 4-component
vector in a real-complex plane space). In MAXWELL'S ORIGINAL QUATERNION
THEORY, this scalar component often remains when the directional components
zero. Further, it enfolds vectors and functions of vectors inside, in a
hidden variable manner. Specifically, Tom has patterned a unified field
theory concept upon the previously unnoticed but remarkable early work of E.
T. Whittaker. "In 1903 and 1904, Whittaker showed that all present day vector
EM can be replaced by scalar potential interferometry, and that bidirectional
harmonic EM plane wave sets could be used to produce a standing wave of force-
field-free potential. In modern terms, this shows how to turn EM wave energy
into electrogravitional potential energy, then how to interfere two such
scalar potentials to recover the EM energy, even at a distance. This
unrecognized work is of great importance: when applied to modern physics, it
produces supersets of quantum mechanics, classical electromagnetics, and
general relativity. Further, all three extended disciplines unify on their
common Whittaker subset, in a testable and engineerable fashion." All of
Tom's theories to unify electromagnetics, general relativity, and quantum
mechanics are summarized in his 1991 paper, which is only six pages long!
These are all available from the Association of Distinguished American

Bearden (1992) this year points out that: "By utilizing fundamental new
definitions for energy, potential, and scalar potential, the mass of the
atomic nucleus may be considered a powerful electrostatic scalar potential,
referred to as the mass potential. The Whittaker EM biwave structure of the
scalar potential then becomes a new and universal internal EM structure for
mass, including the atomic nucleus. This structure can be directly
manipulated electromagnetically, which allows direct EM alternation of the
mass potential, and the nucleus itself. This totally new class of nuclear
interactions is briefly explored, and several hypothesized mechanisms advanced
for neutralizing or processing nuclear wastes. Additional applications are
hypothesized for experimental falsification or verification. We have
previously pointed out two successful experiments by Sweet, one for extracting
useful EM energy from the vacuum, and one for the production of unilateral
forces, including antigravity. We have also pointed out the implications of
the approach for possible testable unification of electromagnetics, general
relativity, and quantum mechanics. The cited Whittaker theory establishes a
greatly expanded but engineerable EM, with external (spatial) and internal
(hyperspatial) subsets. Scientists and engineers are urged to seriously study
the two cited Whittaker papers and their implications, and to set up
experiments to falsify or verify the hypotheses advanced."

A new paradigm and a theoretical analysis supporting experimental tests of the
N-Machine was given by Shiuji Inomata from Japan (1991). He points out that
H. A. Lorentz's treatment, in which a stationary ether is assumed, gives the
correct answer. Even in this case, a new paradigm of science is necessary for
the full understanding of the functioning N-Machine.

Kurt Van Voorhies (1991) is conducting his graduate work at a well known state
university in the prospects of world-wide wireless power transfer, as first
proposed by Tesla. Tesla had designed and was building the Wardenclyffe tower
on Long Island in 1900, featuring a 187 foot wooden tower designed to support
a 68 foot diameter copper hemisphere. While Tesla intended to use the
facility publicly for communications, his secret aim was to implement wireless
power transmission. The transmitter was to have operated at 30-100 megaVolts,
which Tesla claimed was sufficient for worldwide power distribution. However,
when Marconi demonstrated transoceanic wireless communications with much
simpler equipment (illegally using Tesla's patents in the process), J. P.
Morgan withdrew funding for Tesla's project. Research indicates that the
power receiver requires the most development to demonstrate Tesla's early

Toby Grotz (1991) also presented theory and results of Project Tesla to
determine if the Earth's electrostatic (atmospheric) Schumann Cavity can be
resonated, if the power that is delivered to the cavity propagates with very
low losses, and if power can be extracted at other locations within the
cavity. The theory, bases of operation of a transmitter, related computer
programs, and component values are all given in Toby's paper.

A theoretical analysis of Tesla's "Death Ray" was also presented by Toby Grotz
(1991). By carefully examining historical records, this 1937 design was
probably the first attempt to construct a high voltage particle beam device.
Tesla's estimates indicate that a 5 meter diameter metal sphere charged to 60
million volts could project a high energy charged particle beam up to 60
kilometers through the air in a given direction.

Oliver Nichelson (1991) summarized two of Tesla's later energy generation
device designs, including a turbine-shaped Unipolar Dynamo design for a
machine that can continue to produce electricity after being disconnected from
an outside power source. This paper is also important because it also
describes Tesla's "Coil for Electro-Magnetics," patented in 1893. This coil
looks exactly the same as would the counter-wound conical coils of Walter
Russell, if Russell's coils were drawn on a piece of paper in two dimensions.

Don Kelly (1991) examined the theory and operation of an enhanced tank circuit
from two dated Soviet papers translated from the Russian. The experiments
suggest that the full band of a tank circuit can be utilized to take advantage
of a full EMF output over an extended period of time, and then periodically
and uniformly re-exciting the circuit as an effective electrical energy
conservation method. Don suggests that over-unity operation may be possible
by proper adjustment of the resonant driver frequency and time-varying
component reactances.

Paul LaViolette (1991) suggested taking a more lenient interpretation of the
First Law of Thermodynamics and allowing the possibility that free energy
devices could operate at efficiencies exceeding 100%. He evaluates several
ways of generating free energy in the context of subquantum kinetics gene
energy (photon blueshifting), zero-point fluctuations, Ampere law forces, and
electrogravitic gravity field manipulations.

Lynn Surgalla (1991) presented a tutorial on non-linear resonance phenomena
which describes the mathematical theoretical techniques she feels necessary
for modeling the design, tuning, and control of nonlinear effects.

Jose Zoleta from the Philippines (1991) proposed his TAF-13 device: Triac
Alternator Flywheel Motor, as an alternate source of energy. By carefully
choosing the components and resonant frequency of operation, he expects to
produce 150% or more energy than input into his motor-generator system.
However, I feel that more details and data on his design are necessary to
expect his system to provide over-unity operation.

In discussing plans for the quad-disc electrostatic generator, Donald Kelly
(1992), described the basic principles of the Wimshurst twin counterrotating
electrostatic (E/S) disks, and in addition a twin rotor-to-stator E/S
generating factor is included in this composite generator. The positive and
negative stator discs on each side of the rotor disc receive E/S transfer from
the multiple conductive segments on the outer side of each rotor. The voltage
and current amplification functions would be accomplished by twin, large
capacitive transformers, similar to those used in the Swiss M-L converter,
discussed in the next section below.

An improved method of winding inductors, transformers, and motors was
publicized by Toby Grotz (1992). This invention greatly enhances the ability
to generate magnetic fields with a given amount of wire. This invention may
be as fundamental to the use of magnetic fields as was Nikola Tesla's use of
rotating magnetic fields for the generation of alternating current.

George Hathaway in Canada (1991, 1992) has suggested the engineering
requirements necessary to begin to investigate and demonstrate zero point
energy. He draws together the most practical theoretical aspects of this
work, and explains how they are already at a sufficiently advanced stage to
allow initial experiments to be designed. He states that the extraction of
energy from such sources is really not an ivory tower pipe dream, but more a
matter of nuts and bolts. Thus, his suggestions should serve as a sound basis
for those engineers and researchers to keep a close watch on vacuum energy

The Integrity Institute is interested in providing the new measurement devices
and instrumentation that will be needed to conduct meaningful experiments in
these new advanced energy machine areas. Tom Valone (1991) presented an
overview of the interests of the Institute, and the various technical areas
they have supported and hope to support in the future.

Finally, in the important related area of theoretical financing, Professor
Charles Berg (1991) pointed out the relationship between available investment
capital in the current conventional energy resource and conservation areas,
and possible funding in these new innovative technologies. He points out
that: "an innovative concept, as initially applied, usually results in only a
small rise in productivity. However, immediately afterward, there follows a
wave of rapid improvement in the implementation of the new concept. This wave
is responsible for almost all the improvements in productivity that the
innovation brings to society. Still; without the introduction of the
innovative concept, there would be nothing upon which to improve." To me, his
message to investors is: plan on very little return in the short term, and
through licensing and networking agreements, reap a harvest that benefits all
the World in the near term and thereafter.

Reports on Experiments and Working Devices

John and Kevin Moray (1956, 1991) were kind to allow publication of a portion
of their book The Sea of Energy: the history of T. Henry Moray and his
devices, who from the early 1900s to the 1930s demonstrated to the US press's
satisfaction massive over-unity energy conversion.

"In 1901, T. Henry Moray theorized that energy was coming from within the
earth. Through continuous experimentation and in spite of the doubts held by
the scientific community of the day, he discovered that the energy was not
coming from the ground but from an outside source away from the earth. The
energy came in continuous surges, like waves of the sea, more in the daytime
than at night. At this time Moray had enough power to light a 16-candle power
carbon lamp at about one-half capacity. He labeled and defined his "Radiant
Energy: The source of energy coming from the cosmos to the earth and
radiating back from whence it came."

"Upon completion of his first Radiant Energy Device, many tests and
experiments were conducted for the scientific and public communities.
Channeling the waves of energy was done by way of an antenna. When set up and
connected to the ground, priming and then tuning, the device would draw
electrical energy. Results of this experimentation proved that the power
generation had not originated from within the device. The device, through
channeling radiant energy, produced up to 50,000 Watts of power and worked for
long periods of time. For political reasons many people, organizations, and
agencies of the day opposed him strongly. Despite the deliberate destruction
of the R. E. Device, threats against his work and his family, and armed
attacks by unknown assailants, T. Henry Moray continued with his dream of
harnessing a usable energy that the world could benefit from, and the same
time save the earth from the many methods of energy retrieval which now scar
and pollute its land, air, and seas."

(As a side note, Moray's first germanium solid-state device (semiconductor)
was submitted to the U. S. Patent Office in 1927, and was rejected on the
basis that it would not work without a heated cathode.) (Boy. Am I glad
times have changed. Whew!) (That's a sick joke folks!) Wake Up!

A complete description of operational electrostatic motors is given in the
book by Oleg Jefimen-ko (1973). Some small electrostatic motors can be
operated using only Earth-field antennas.

Paul Brown (1992) describes recent developments in materials technology that
now make it possible to fabricate nonthermal thin-film isotopic energy
converters with a specific power of 24 kiloWatts/kilogram and 5 to 10 years
working life at 5 to 10 Watts. He states: "This creates applications never
before possible, such as placing the power supply directly on integrated
circuit chips. The efficiency of the converters is about 25%, which is two to
three times greater than the 6 to 8% capabilities of current thermoelectric

In a very impressive and I feel extremely important paper, Paul Brown (1991)
described his ability to place radioactive nuclear isotope material into a
resonant tank circuit and extract energy from the decaying nuclide. He
writes: "A phenomena known as the 'Beta Voltaic Effect' is used to directly
convert radioactive decay energy into electricity without going through a
thermal cycle. A great attraction of isotopic power sources is that
radioactive decay energy is several orders of magnitude greater than chemical
energy." Specifically Paul uses a strong beta-emitting nuclide, like Krypton-
85 or Strontium-90 as the radioactive material and places it directly into a
tunable LC tank circuit. He claims that results of 50% conversion
efficiencies have been demonstrated, and greater efficiencies are hoped for in
the future. I have heard that T. Henry Moray had used radioactive substances
in his device in the 1930s. I wonder if charged particles or charged ions
play an important role in these effects. Moray King (1992) thinks they do.

Recent research has been conducted by Toby Grotz, Tim Binder, and Ron Kovac
(1992) in order to verify Walter Russell's theories and experiments. They
write: "The experiments that Russell conducted in 1927, which were verified
by Westinghouse laboratories, have been repeated. Russell at that time
thought that he had found a novel way to change the ratio of hydrogen to
oxygen in a sealed quartz tube containing water vapor. Russell's data
indicated that, where there had only been water vapor consisting of hydrogen
and oxygen in the tube, the addition of inert gasses in the amount of 69% were
detected. The use of magnetic fields was shown to produce this effect. The
end result of the experiment was to demonstrate a cheap and efficient method
of hydrogen production for a hydrogen based fuel economy." Russell also
developed and tested counter-wound sets of coils, each in the shape of
overlapping cones. The device was based on the "power multiplication
principle" discussed in the many books that he had written. According to a
memo dated in 1961, the device worked: "because of the false concept of
gravity which assumes it to be force of attraction which pulls inward from
within instead of a cyclic force which controls the expansion of cold into
heat, and the expansion of heat into cold... Nature's first principle of
power production and the construction of matter is to produce heat from the
cold of space. The heat thus generated radiates back into cold to complete
the wave cycle which automatically repeats itself in this ageless universe of
infinite continuity." (This is very similar to the theories of Victor
Schauberger; Alexandersson, 1982). On September 10, 1961, Walter and (his
wife) Lao Russell reported to their contacts at NORAD, that the coils had
worked and that the President of the United States could announce to the world
that a "greater, safer power than atomic energy" could be provided for
industry and transportation. The Russell's were convinced that they had found
and demonstrated a new source of energy and a conversion process for what is
now known as the zero point energy.

Bill Muller has developed the Muller Motor/Generator and presented a very good
review of the theoretical principles in his 1991 referenced paper. His motors
utilize super powerful permanent magnets with amorphous metal parts that have
practically zero hysteresis losses! Utilizing their design, based upon an
odd-even magnetic pole design developed in 1852, they describe the creation of
a magnetic balance in the motor which eliminates the work required to remove
one pole from the other no matter how large or how strong the magnetic surface
would be. I liked how Bill talked about powerful permanent magnets: "It is
only because these super powerful magnets carry enormous ampere pressures
within themselves that they are now able to lift their own weight." This
supports my view that permanent magnets, including planets, are vast sources
of potential energy. The Muller's are very excited about the operational
characteristics of their motors and generators, and demonstrated one large
motor at the 26th IECEC in Boston, MA. Their paper includes a detailed
description of their circuits with voltage and current analyses. They have
obtained very high system efficiencies, and state that "Up to this point,
there is no reason to expect what is called over-unity either on the motor or
the generator." Bill has promised to continue his experiments and keep in
contact with interested parties.

The Reed (1991) Magnetic Motor is an electromechanical device that Troy Reed
says runs on magnetic power. The author has developed a small prototype and a
larger unit that have both undergone several demonstrations and testing
programs. He has also filed for a Patent with the Patent Office and the
Foreign PTO/EPO. In his design, eight permanent magnets are placed on each of
four disks. Two outer disks remain stationary while the two inner ones are
mounted on a common shaft and are allowed to turn freely. Videotapes and
other information are available.






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